The amnion muscle combined graft (AMCG) conduits: a new alternative in the repair of wide substance loss of peripheral nerves
The amnion muscle combined graft (AMCG) conduits: a new alternative in the repair of wide substance loss of peripheral nervesRiccio M, Pangrazi PP, Parodi PC, Vaienti L, Marchesini A, Neuendorf AD, Bottegoni C, Tos P, Geuna S. 31 August 2014
The use of autologous sural nerve grafts is still the current gold standard for the repair of peripheral nerve injuries with wide substance losses, but with a poor rate of functional recovery after repair of mixed and motor nerves, a limited donor nerve supply, and morbidity of donor site. At present, tubulization through the muscle vein combined graft, is a viable alternative to the nerve autografts and certainly is a matter of tissue engineering still open to continuous development, although this technique is currently limited to a critical gap of 3 cm with less favorable results for motor function recovery. In this report, we present a completely new tubulization method, the amnion muscle combined graft (AMCG) technique, that consists in the combination of the human amniotic membrane hollow conduit with autologous skeletal muscle fragments for repairing the substance loss of peripheral nerves and recover both sensory and motor functions. In a series of five patients with loss of substance of the median nerve ranging 3-5 cm at the wrist, excellent results graded as S4 in two cases, S3+ in two cases, and S3 in one case; M4 in four cases and M3 in one case were achieved. No iatrogenic damage due to withdrawal of a healthy nerve from donor site was observed. This technique allows to repair extensive loss of substance up to 5 cm with a good sensory and motor recovery. The AMCG thus may be considered a reasonable alternative to traditional nerve autograft in selected clinical conditions.