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Use of homologous bone for alveolar crest reconstruction in 483 patients with 5 years' outcomes post implantation

Use of homologous bone for alveolar crest reconstruction in 483 patients with 5 years' outcomes post implantation

Procopio O, Trojan D, Frigo AC, Paolin A 30 May 2019

Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 May 30. doi: 10.1007/s10006-019-00781-2.

Procopio O, Trojan D, Frigo AC, Paolin A

Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of bone reconstruction of the alveolar crest using homologous fresh-frozen bone harvested from deceased donors.

METHODS: A retrospective survey was based on the Castelfranco Veneto Hospital database, in which 3264 clinical records with a primary or secondary diagnosis of alveolar atrophy were collected over a 10-year period. A random sample of 483 patients with at least 5 years' follow-up was included in the survey. Patients were contacted by telephone and administered a questionnaire with specific questions to build a significant sample.

RESULTS: Of the patients, 449 (93% of the sample) had an uneventful follow-up after surgery and 93.2% received at least one implant, with a mean of 3.4 implants per patient. At the time of the survey, 93% of the patients were wearing a dental prosthesis, 86.9% had not lost any implants, and 6.7% had lost at least one implant, while 6.4% still had implants but presented some clinical problems. Finally, patients were asked to provide an index score (1-10 points) on the therapy as a whole, i.e., bone graft, implants, and prostheses. A score of insufficient (up to 5 points) was given by 5.3% of patients, of sufficient (6 to 7 points) by 6.1%, and of good/very good (over 7) by 88.6%.

CONCLUSIONS: Homologous bone for alveolar crest reconstruction can be a valid alternative to autologous grafting if specific tissue limitations are considered when planning therapy. Creeping substitution is partial and slower than in autologous grafts, especially in cases where cortical bone is thick or volume graft is very large. The quality of soft tissue coverage and mucosa lining is also important, possibly due to slower tissue revascularization, so future implants should predictably be positioned primarily within the original host bone.

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